A central role for climate change in the new US national security strategy | Techno Glob


Since taking office, President Biden and his national security team have repeatedly called climate change an “existential threat” to America and the world. The New US National Security Policy (NSS), released in late October, shows that such terminology is not mere rhetoric and that the administration is interested in taking a serious step forward in reimagining the definition of US national security. Climate change is mentioned a whopping 63 times (compared to 71 for Russia and 55 for China). More important than the number of mentions, however, is how climate change is framed—as a high-level threat alongside and influenced by geopolitical challenges from U.S. adversaries and adversaries.

Why is framing important? One of the most important functions of NSS is its storytelling power. Such documents provided A narrative for Americans and the world that shapes attitudes, influences policy decisions and resource allocation, and changes institutional structures. The new NSS tells a new story about climate threats—one that places them at the center of shaping U.S. security in the decades ahead.

The new NSS explains this shift, stating:

Be it climate change, food insecurity, infectious diseases, terrorism, energy shortages or inflation, people around the world are struggling to cope with the consequences of shared challenges that cross borders. These shared challenges are not minor issues secondary to geopolitics. They are at the heart of national and international security and should be treated as such.

In other words, climate change is not a “soft” security issue; It is no less important than direct threats to states but central to keeping America safe.

Critically, the strategy goes beyond simply placing climate change at the top of the list of security threats facing the US, it also provides a systematic analysis of the international security landscape, drawing a clear link between the competitive geopolitical environment and shared threats such as climate change. , epidemics and terrorism. According to policy:

The increased competition between democracy and autocracy is one of the two most serious trends we face. The second is shared challenges—or what some call transnational challenges—that respect no borders and affect all nations. These two trends affect each other—geographical contestations change, and often complicate, the context in which shared challenges can be addressed while those issues often fuel geopolitical contestation…. We need a strategy that not only deals with both, but recognizes the relationship between them and adjusts accordingly.

NSS provides a prime example of this dynamic in its discussion of exactly what democracies and autocracies are competing for: the ability to set the rules for the way forward. The policy acknowledges that many rules and regulations are outdated and sometimes counterproductive, stating:

[1945पासूनयुनायटेडस्टेट्सनेआंतरराष्ट्रीयव्यापारआणिगुंतवणूकआर्थिकधोरणआणितंत्रज्ञाननियंत्रितकरण्यासाठीसंस्थामानदंडआणिमानकेतयारकरण्याचेनेतृत्वकेलेआहेयायंत्रणांनीअमेरिकेचीआर्थिकआणिभू-राजकीयउद्दिष्टेप्रगतकेलीआणिसरकारआणिअर्थव्यवस्थाकशाप्रकारेपरस्परसंवादसाधतातहेआकारदेऊनजगभरातीललोकांनाफायदाझाला-आणितेयूएसहितसंबंधआणिमूल्यांशीजुळलेल्यामार्गांनीकेलेयायंत्रणांनीआर्थिककिंवातांत्रिकबदलांसहगतीठेवलीनाहीआणिआजअप्रासंगिककिंवाकाहीप्रकरणांमध्येआपल्यासमोरअसलेल्याआव्हानांचेनिराकरणकरण्यासाठीसक्रियपणेहानिकारकअसण्याचाधोकाआहे

हे अंतर-सध्याचे सुरक्षा लँडस्केप आणि सांगितलेल्या लँडस्केपवर नियंत्रण ठेवण्याच्या विद्यमान यंत्रणांमधले-विशेषत: जेव्हा हवामान बदलाच्या प्रभावांचा विचार केला जातो तेव्हा स्पष्ट होते. समुद्र पातळी वाढणे, वाळवंटीकरण आणि उष्णतेच्या लाटा यासारखे हवामान धोके राष्ट्रीय सीमांना आकार देतील आणि सीमापार स्थलांतराला चालना देतील, नागरिकत्व आणि सार्वभौमत्वाबद्दल महत्त्वाचे प्रश्न निर्माण करतील. ग्लोबल वार्मिंगच्या उत्तरदायित्वाभोवतीचे प्रश्न अधिक तीव्र आणि अधिक आव्हानात्मक होत आहेत. उदाहरणार्थ: ज्या देशांनी सर्वाधिक हरितगृह वायू उत्सर्जित केले आहेत त्या देशांना सर्वात कमी उत्सर्जित करणारे पण तापमानवाढीचे सर्वात लक्षणीय परिणाम जाणवत असलेल्या देशांना काय द्यावे? कोण ठरवतो? रस्त्याचे नियम कशासाठी आहेत सौर भू-अभियांत्रिकीचे संशोधन आणि उपयोजन? आंतरराष्ट्रीय समुदाय वाढत्या खुल्या आर्क्टिकमध्ये संघर्षाच्या जोखमीचे व्यवस्थापन कसे करतो?

सध्याच्या आंतरराष्ट्रीय प्रशासन यंत्रणा आणि संस्था या प्रश्नांची उत्तरे विकसित करण्यासाठी समाधानकारक मार्ग प्रदान करत नाहीत. या आव्हानांचे व्यवस्थापन करण्यासाठी नवीन नियम आणि यंत्रणा विकसित करण्याबाबतची स्पर्धा ही आगामी काही वर्षांमध्ये राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षेच्या लँडस्केपचे निश्चित वैशिष्ट्य असेल; NSS हे डायनॅमिक ओळखणे योग्य आहे.

रणनीतीचे आणखी एक सामर्थ्य म्हणजे हवामान बदलाचा सामना करण्यासाठी स्वतःचे घर मिळाल्याशिवाय या स्पर्धेत अमेरिका आघाडीवर राहू शकत नाही याची कबुली. त्यामुळे हे ताजेतवाने आहे की हा दस्तऐवज देशांतर्गत आणि आंतरराष्ट्रीय धोरणांमधील संबंध जोडतो. धोरण नोट्स:

जागतिक कृती घरापासून सुरू होते, जिथे आम्ही स्वच्छ ऊर्जा संक्रमणामध्ये अभूतपूर्व पिढीची गुंतवणूक करत आहोत. [Inflation Reduction Act], simultaneously creating millions of good-paying jobs and strengthening American industries. … This domestic work is important to our international credibility and to motivating other countries to their own ambitions and actions.

Articulating this vision in a strategy document is one thing and implementing it is another. As I have Argued In the past, the issue needs to be mainstreamed into regional and country-level offices and policies to truly address the security threats posed by climate change. In that regard, while the mention of climate in the regional sections of the NSS is rather haphazard, it is heartening to see the extent to which climate considerations are integrated into the White House’s regional policies. Sub-Saharan Africa, Arctic, and the Pacific Islands—all of which were released prior to the NSS. For example, the Pacific Partnership Strategy The climate crisis is the region’s “top security concern” and commits the US to “partnering with the Pacific Islands to adapt to and manage the impacts of climate change on lives, health and livelihoods”. Adequate resources are required to pursue these policies—especially for US allies and partners to invest in adaptation and resilience measures. For this, there is a proposal mentioned in the NSS that needs immediate attention and funding President’s Emergency Plan for Adaptation and Resilience (ready), a whole-of-government initiative focused on funding climate adaptation programs around the world.

As the NSS makes clear, fully funding programs like PREPARE or mainstreaming climate considerations into regional and bilateral policies does not detract from competition with China but rather strengthens the US position. According to the NSS, a key advantage is America’s “unparalleled network of friends and partners [that] It protects and advances our interests around the world – and is the envy of our enemies.” Ensuring that those friends and partners are resilient to climate threats is vital if the US expects to call on them to respond to other threats in the future, whether domestically caused by extreme weather or food insecurity. Governments overwhelmed by challenges cannot look outward and support other US priorities.

Some critics The Biden administration’s NSS has said it is too ambitious. Instead, I’d say it actually shows a bit of humility. For the first time, it recognizes that ignoring or downplaying international, “actorless” threats like climate change and pandemics will hinder America’s ability to address other challenges. It recognizes that previous treatment of these topics in national security conversations—as one of a laundry list of secondary or additional threats—has been inadequate, bluntly reminding readers that “[i]If parents can’t feed their children, nothing else matters.” It proposes a new framework for understanding the importance of these issues, linking the effects of geopolitical competition to the world’s ability to deal with the existential threat of climate change. Of course, this is not simple or straightforward. ; but telling a new, compelling story about America’s national security in the coming decades that includes climate change is an important step toward progress.



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